The End of Cheap Chinese Labor 

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21 Mar 2023



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Comentários : 2 747   
PolyMatter 2 meses atrás
If you're someone who usually skips sponsor reads at the end of the video, (no worries) but I encourage you to listen to this one, in which I give a little bit of background for why we created Nebula and why it's not just another streaming service. No pressure to sign up, but it might still be interesting to hear about. -Evan
heidi Rabenau
heidi Rabenau 2 meses atrás
Will there be more episodes of China Actually?
Clam Chowder
Clam Chowder 2 meses atrás
No thanks
Zach 2 meses atrás
I already have Nebula but, respectfully, you should consider putting in some conclusion to your videos. Both on Nebula and with SponsorBlock, they just abruptly end and it is awkward. It feels like something is missing every time. I love your channel and always click on new videos, so I hope you take it as constructive feedback and you grow even faster. Thank you!
tjakko bosma
tjakko bosma 2 meses atrás
@PolyMatter -Evan is kinda corporate, I would drop it
Michael Turner
Michael Turner 2 meses atrás
1960s..."The end of cheap Japanese labor" 1980s..."The end of cheap Korean labor" 2010s..."The end of cheap Chinese labor"
Anonymous Infinido
Anonymous Infinido 2 meses atrás
Next Indian labour?
Saksham Agrawal
Saksham Agrawal 2 meses atrás
Followed by Nigeria
Dhiraj Gawande
Dhiraj Gawande 2 meses atrás
@Saksham Agrawal followed by Pakistan
Polska 2 meses atrás
​@Dhiraj Gawande what's next?
NewPaulActs17 2 meses atrás
@Saksham Agrawal india and nigeria are yet decades away.
WilliamTheBonquerer 2 meses atrás
I think it's important for people to know that the vast majority of child Labourers work in agriculture not in sweatshops. The same was true in the Victorian era but child labor in factories were more visible to the urban middle class so it has more cultural impact
Shivansh NA
Shivansh NA 2 meses atrás
Is child helping on family farm count as child labour? Or only counts if he/she working on others place?
WilliamTheBonquerer 2 meses atrás
​@Shivansh NA Thankfully something which is considered a crime against humanity has got legal definitions, a kid driving a tractor in Ohio is different from Uzbekistan child cotton pickers
Dreegan 2 meses atrás
@Shivansh NA Think meat processing plants.
Ellen Ripley
Ellen Ripley 2 meses atrás
This is probably true in some countries but child labor in African countries is a bit different.
Bubba Gooseman
Bubba Gooseman 2 meses atrás
My great-grandfather who grew up in Florida in the 1950's didn't learn how to read because he worked on farms instead. Especially in the Orange Groves. He was tough as nails though, kept working in his garden into his 70's
Karim Walid Fawzy
Karim Walid Fawzy 2 meses atrás
Cheap labour is usually a transitional period, not a permanent one.
One Small Step At The Time
Coughs in Bangladeshi*
Joseph Williams
Joseph Williams 2 meses atrás
@One Small Step At The Time *Bengali and they're industrializing more quickly than basically any other country in human history. They still have most likely a decade or two before sweatshops can be entirely phased out, but they're practically the poster child for cheap labor's transitoriness.
Malachai Carter
Malachai Carter 2 meses atrás
​@Joseph Williams Faster than Japan or China?
Andrew 2 meses atrás
​@Joseph Williams Bangladeshi* Bengali includes indian people too.
magma2680 2 meses atrás
The end of these videos never fail to make me frustrated and saying "that's it? He was still making a point..."
Ernst Schmidt
Ernst Schmidt 2 meses atrás
get nubula lol
Fox 2 meses atrás
Fox 2 meses atrás
​@Ernst Schmidt no
CL Deltanion
CL Deltanion 2 meses atrás
i thought the same thing. he needs to actually END the video, and then transition into an ad. it was very disappointing.
Rahil Khalak
Rahil Khalak 2 meses atrás
Hey Polymatter, I find it surprising to not see any mention of China's supply chains. Tim Cook clearly mentioned that what keeps Apple in China is not its cheap labor anymore but the availability of suppliers and skilled workforce. And that goes the same for a lot of other globalized companies. China has already shifted their focus from cheap manufacturing to the advanced specialised manufacturing and services industries.
ben079329 2 meses atrás
In some way you are right but I think that does not apply to the vast majority of companies
chetan pandu
chetan pandu 2 meses atrás
yes, Steve jobs said, they're not manufacturing in America as they don't have enough basic engineers.
ilhamrj 2 meses atrás
true, in term of GDP size. But in term of employment?? I dont think so, there is no way you can migrate all of those cheap factory workers to service sectors overnight... Thus, the factory might need to relocate somewhere else for most of the workforce ...
Admiral Kaede
Admiral Kaede 2 meses atrás
at that point might as well bring em back to the US lol
AJ 2 meses atrás
As a Chinese, I found your content very accurate. A major issue in China is the “state religion of education” forces a lot of parents to train their only child to do well in exams and they are not trained in any other aspects in life. Eventually a large group of graduate students will not have the skill nor the resilience to work as a skilled labor in factories. Factories have to pay way more for the same skill 20 years ago, and this is only getting worse.
4 bidden
4 bidden 2 meses atrás
Leo Li
Leo Li 2 meses atrás
Tell me a country where graduate students have the skills or the resilience to work as a skilled labor in factories
Kelvin C.
Kelvin C. 2 meses atrás
When graduate students need to work as factory workers, the country's economy is already dead.
ibis are not bin chickens!
Well wages in all jobs should go up as cost of living goes up.
ibis are not bin chickens!
Especially when companies still record big profits and don't pay taxes that would benefit the whole community.
East India Traders
East India Traders 2 meses atrás
Children, also known as free labour in agricultural societies ☠️
bababababababa 2 meses atrás
PolyMatter has jokes 💀
红尘飞 2 meses atrás
I am a Chinese college student studying in Macau (this is why I can log in to youtube). My impression of Made in China is that almost all the things with visible trademarks around me are made in China, and the really high-end European, American, Japanese, Korean and Taiwan products The product label cannot be seen, because China is responsible for the assembly and integration solution provider, but China is overcoming this phenomenon and manufacturing real high-end products by itself. About housing prices: Regarding China's housing prices, my understanding is: China is a land-oriented economic development model, buying a house = buying national bonds = the country's future prospects. When the country's prospects are all the way up, the house will become more and more valuable, and the repayment of the loan will become less and less, but this will only make the college students/graduate students who graduate later and work more and more painful. Regarding education: It is worth mentioning that the college entrance examination is extremely unfair. China can be roughly understood as having three types of universities: A CLASS, B CLASS, and C LASS. In 2022, high school students in Beijing have a 46% chance of being admitted to A CLASS universities, while high school students in my hometown of Jiangxi Province have a 41% chance of being admitted to A, B, and C universities in 2022. Beijingers get into better universities just because they are Beijingers and their test papers are easier. Supplement: Part of the content is contrary to the content in the video. More and more students can't accept to engage in physical work after studying in college, so more and more people hope to continue to graduate school, to avoid entering the workplace or hope to get a better job, so China's Postgraduate examinations are also gradually creating new records for the number of students. And the graduates/postgraduates contributed a lot to the unemployment rate after the lockdown. On the one hand, the society scoffs at those who graduated from technical secondary schools/college/vocational high schools, and the wages of those engaged in manual work are not optimistic, and they are very tiring. About childbirth: I asked several female friends around me, including girlfriends, that they all resisted childbirth. The reasons include the great pain it brings, the huge damage to the appearance after childbirth, and the hard work of raising children. and time for yourself.
Gabo Márquez
Gabo Márquez 2 meses atrás
​@红尘飞 1987
Apsoy Pike
Apsoy Pike 2 meses atrás
Hey, it's a family business. Why shouldn't they learn it at a young age?
Rye Rye
Rye Rye 2 meses atrás
I've lived in China and some of these countries for several years. In many ways labor cannot be fully commodified, so comparing the price of "unskilled" labor across countries isn't an apple to apple comparison. What is priced into the labor are many of the factors mentioned in the video: infrastructure, supply chains, security, quality control, education, market access, and what I call the Henry Ford effect. When your employees are paid enough, they become your customers driving growth and generating what Robert Reich calls a virtuous economic cycle. So cheap labor is good for a export economy, but not a consumer based economy. Some of these countries had many years and a head start on China, so there is another prerequisite factor put under the nebulous category of "political will". China planned and engineered their economic rise, while too many developing countries fight the inevitable or follow wherever the wind blows them.
Niklas Andersson
Niklas Andersson 2 meses atrás
Nice video. 20 years late though. I have worked for a multinational company in India. When an entire planet wants to hire labor in Bangalore 'because it's cheap' - that sudden, abnormal demand does something to prices and price structures. We don't live in a vacuum. Same thing has happened in China. It was long ago it was advantageous to hire in those countries. world world 2 meses atrás
i had no idea😅.
XpertMan 2 meses atrás
Do you have a prediction on our expensive future? As I foresee the job market shrink and prices on goods rise with loss of cheap Chinese labour. Any recommendations for avg ppl? :)
Cheesecake • 99 years ago
​@XpertMan China is already using AI on the backend Just imagine them operating 247 with AI with all the cheap 5G technologies and industry 4.0 implemented throughout China Can the other cheap labours countries compete ?
RiddleRides 2 meses atrás
Coincidently last night on our news there was a topic about this. Turns out it is currently 18% cheaper to manufacturer in our own country (Belgium) than to let it be made in China. Its early days, but more and more company's will shift once they calculate their costs again. This video talks abouth south american countries, but Belgium is compared to that way more expensive in hourly wages..
Neil Scott
Neil Scott 2 meses atrás
I so look forward to the day that the powers that be conclude that we have to bring back manufacturing home. Every dollar you sent to China helps build another aircraft carrier or military aircraft.
shotelco 2 meses atrás
​@Neil Scott Says the guy who types his comment on a _Chinese_ manufactured keyboard, looking at a _Chinese_ manufactured monitor, his had on a _Chinese_ manufactured mouse, with a _Chinese_ manufactured iPhone in his pocket.
Neil Scott
Neil Scott 2 meses atrás
@shotelco And your peripherals are not!
E.V. Hodge
E.V. Hodge 2 meses atrás
Only so much can be done in space and time in a country with many different cultures - not an homogenious population. Lifting education standards for example. MY GREAT GRANDFATHER spoke about China's inevitable rise in Australia of the 1870s. So, thinking is not always received. You crammed a great spread of data into this video report, so much food for thought. Thank you for your efforts!
Tr 2 meses atrás
Main reasons why big manufacturing companies picked China is not because of cheap labor that can be get anywhere in the world, but because the sheer scale and efficiency of their manufacturing, infrastructure. For eg Iphones most the parts are also sourced from China. If any change to design Apple can just make a phone call to China. China spent decades investing in infrastructure making their logistics one of the best in the world. And competitive standard public education making all sort of transferable skills labour pool available for such industries. No where in the world you can have orders delivered to your contries as fast, as on spec, on demand, competitive shipping and pricing as China.
???????? 2 meses atrás
Not to mention about OEM manufacturing, western brand now is just ordering a order production on china OEM company and slap their logo on top of it.
Siarnaq Frost
Siarnaq Frost 2 meses atrás
My cousin who is a seafarer said that Chinese ports are mostly automated it barely have a dozen people in there when their cargo ships docked. It is insane. It is no longer cheap labour anymore but the lack of it and the speed they are modernizing their logistics and manufacturing capabilities.
Hayashi Itsujisaruo
Hayashi Itsujisaruo 2 meses atrás
@Siarnaq Frost which rendered many jobless when jobs were already hard to come by even before pre pandemic era.
jie yan
jie yan 2 meses atrás
@Siarnaq Frost 欢迎来中国旅行
Cheesecake • 99 years ago
​@Hayashi Itsujisaruo their automated solutions are used for the Chinese society And as for joblessness in most other countries is because of the lack of alternate skills. Just look at how much the government is investing or subsidising the education sector and you will know
mamborambo 29 dias atrás
Love your charts and how you explain the population dividend. Please do more in-depth economic topics, everyone needs to understand.
Beast 2 meses atrás
I would love to see a video from you on western demographics. Yeah I know you mostly focus on Asian countries but it would be good to understand one's own situation from a demographic perspective.
Christian Weibrecht
Christian Weibrecht 2 meses atrás
we are also reproducing below the replacement rate but supplement that through immigration
Chi Er
Chi Er 2 meses atrás
The demographic issue with China compared to West isn't birthrates slowing down. That's a natural societal progression. The difference with the West is the sheer speed. They went through in like 40 years what the West did in 200 something years. This allowed many Western countries to gradually get used to slowly aging population with a shrinking workforce.
Alan Chen 💎
Alan Chen 💎 2 meses atrás
@Chi Er and Japan is a good analogue and way to predict what will happen to China because it's right in between the west and China in terms of speed
Arkajit Maity
Arkajit Maity 2 meses atrás
​@Chi Er The reason why the West could afford 200 years while China only 40 ? Because of colonialism. The import based economies of the colonies served as a cushion for the industries of the West, captive markets that could only trade with their colonizers, discriminatory trade agreements which saw zero tax being levied on imports from the colonizer nation in the colony, but the colonizer would impose high duties on finished goods exports from its colonies except raw materials. This allowed them the luxury of a slow transition. Taiwan, South Korea, China etc are the first countries that have developed through market economics, not through gunboat economics. Their challenges and solutions will provide a pathway for other third world nations, especially those in Africa, a route to follow.
FUG Slayer Nominee
FUG Slayer Nominee 2 meses atrás
You shouldn't have left out the part about stability and economic policies of nations, there are multiple reasons for why companies do not prefer a lot of African or Latin American countries despite the low costs of labor there. Mexico for example has a massive problem with gangs, drug cartels, corruption, etc.
Xenlazar 2 meses atrás
Mexico is close to the US so goods transportation is also low cost
Name Nameson
Name Nameson 2 meses atrás
China supports those Mexican cartels. Decoupling from China would reduce a lot of the world's stability issues.
HomerOJSimpson 2 meses atrás
And China has the CCP that closed down the country for 3 years. Mexicos problems is less cartels and more incompetent policies but yet they are seeing a huge growth in manufacturing. They are next door to US (biggest market in the world) and have free trade within North America. They are in great position to take many of those jobs from China and already are doing so. In fact, many Chinese firms are opening up shop in Mexico joining American, Japanese and Korean companies that seem to dominate many parts of Mexico.
Xi Qian
Xi Qian 2 meses atrás
Fun fact: 10:13 you're talking about flights between Shanghai and SF, but the footage you used is "China Airline", which is the airline of Taiwan...I don't think they operate direct flights between US and Mainland China😂. Anyway this is a great video.
Hen86 2 meses atrás
was looking for this comment.
Lotr lmao
Lotr lmao 2 meses atrás
Filip Rohn
Filip Rohn 2 meses atrás
​@Lotr lmao We're hardly professional about our own political issues, so nothing new under the sun 😅
Kevin Lin
Kevin Lin 2 meses atrás
was about to address this as well haha
OninO Tsai
OninO Tsai Mês atrás
Same thoughts lol
TheHipClip 2 meses atrás
I remember the string of FoxConn suicides because of the horrible working conditions caused by Apple's greed for the cheapest labor.
Avocadooverl0rd 2 meses atrás
I haven't heard of this, what happened?
R T 2 meses atrás
Have you seen the pictures?
Marissa Dower-morgan
Very good video , this sort of research needs to be done for the USA also . I'm sure the Department of Labor is not accurate , and has rarely been . Since when there has been big recessions , the people who lost jobs for over a year or so , just simply disappeared from the statistics.
Tathagat Chatterjee
Tathagat Chatterjee 2 meses atrás
China has automated quite a bit, making its labor expensive, but keeping products relatively cheap.
Tincanmaniac 2 meses atrás
If anyone wants a book that goes into this further, the book "Invisible China" by Scott Rozelle and Natalie Hell covers this, though it focuses most extensively on the rural/urban education and economic divide. It's a somewhat quick read, at a around 200 pages, and imo very interesting, if you like this topic.
Ninja L
Ninja L 2 meses atrás
It was a really interesting book. Although also sad if you care about kids on the other side of the world.
H McNamara
H McNamara 2 meses atrás
When I worked at a large community college system in a large metropolis in the Pacific Northwest, 90% of our student population was Asian. Many of my students shared that if there was more than one child in the family, only the oldest boy was sent to college. All other family members were made to work and invest in that boy-child's education and success. Many of my students struggled with higher education. Some of that was a big cultural shift. In their home country, all family members "contributed" to a child's education (i.e., tutored them and in some cases, did their homework for them). In the U.S., however, having a family member write something for that college student was considered academic misconduct. This was shocking to many of my Chinese students who could not grasp that in America, achieving success on one's one was the drill--not "collecting" from all family members to succeed in one's class in an American college. Also, many of my Asian students were very quiet and passive. They had been taught in their home country to memorize facts and give them back in standardized tests. Critical thinking or thinking on one's own was not valued (so they told me). It was exhausting to try and get them to share their ideas as they did not see the value in that; instead, they wanted me to give them "the right answer" so that they could memorize this. Of course, this doesn't work when teaching writing composition. Unfortunately, many of my students ended up in a long succession of remedial or developmental courses before they could go on to transfer-level courses; and as most know, the longer the sequence, the bigger the drop out ratio. It was very sad and I ultimately took a job in the Midwest where I felt I could be of more. My best wishes to anyone who is seeking to better themselves through education. As first-generation college graduates, me and my sisters would tell you that it is the way up and out of poverty.
E.V. Hodge
E.V. Hodge 2 meses atrás
It may not be, it will depend on what field you study. The skills of a human being need to be varied and life-improving, more than narrow-focused. Although specialists will make more money, over the longer term.
The Philipp Experience
The Philipp Experience 2 meses atrás
This was such a great video. I learned a lot and I‘m glad I watched it. Thank you.
Stavka 2 meses atrás
I really appreciate it when topics like these are covered objectively, and aren’t poisoned with awful political rhetoric. Thank you.
William Lytle
William Lytle 2 meses atrás
I feel as though there’s something unaddressed here - this economic miracle that we seem to be fawning over, was literally just millions of farmers moving to slave away in factories instead of slaving away in the fields. That’s the “golden age”. The fact that suddenly a lot of people became efficient for generating profit for foreign companies. I think implicit in the coverage of these demographic trends, even when they lead to crises, is that it’s progress, but it’s not necessarily, or not for all equally. Industrialisation just *is* . I hope that as China and the rest of the world struggle with these demographic crises, we might ask ourselves what real miracles are.
付晨辉 Mês atrás
I think the real miracle would be that there is no polarization between the rich and the poor, no excess capacity, no financialization
Jorge Yamil Martinez Marquez
I would like an updated exploration on the places who avoided the middle income trap (beyond the 2012 date on the data shown in this video - great video, btw!
Ricardo Rehländer
Ricardo Rehländer Mês atrás
A great video as always from this channel. Thank you for the insights !
Haley Ye
Haley Ye Mês atrás
I'm Chinese, another interesting phenomenon I found is that everything has become so expensive over the past decade as well as wage rised but seems that China never reports high inflation rate, and the currency Yuan has really increased value since 2007
SAM08G 2 meses atrás
This is a BRILLIANT video. It covers very important economic concepts so we'll explained that makes it easily understood by the general public. Well done, keep up the good work!
Michael Wesselman
Michael Wesselman Mês atrás
Not used to hearing anyting associated with apple being called cheap. It is astounding how much Apple was willing to mark up the price of their products now that I know how cheap their labor cost were.
Yadobler 2 meses atrás
You had a good pt on vocstional sch stigma. In asia, it's either graduate degree or dropout. Unlike the west, vocational and trade sch are considered disgraceful, or sub standard. Hence the low pay and high disparity in education level
ayo 2 meses atrás
Totally agree - getting an apprenticeship can lead to a well paying job - or if not, a secure job. If you're willing to move for the apprenticeship it could be six figures a year. The work you do part time (which counts toward the apprenticeship) is paid, and the part time vocational school is also compensated in most countries.
brandon m
brandon m 2 meses atrás
I think the west also stigmatized trades. Anyone with good grades would get weird looks from family and friends if they decided to be a plumber rather than go to university. Even if the plumber would probably get paid more haha
L C 2 meses atrás
It's a problem in some Western countries as well. US still expect college degree as default. UK too over-emphasise uni degree. You'd have to look towards the likes of Germany for examples where vocational training is on equal footing with college/uni degrees.
Jonathan Pfeffer
Jonathan Pfeffer 2 meses atrás
@brandon m In the past, but that’s really starting to change nowadays. I’m a university student and I hear people all the time talk about how viable of a career path trades are if you are smart about it.
MBT 2 meses atrás
For the graph at 5:40, I think its a good idea to add population into the industrialization graph for better understanding.
Greg Veit
Greg Veit 2 meses atrás
Fascinating. And so many aspects of this story deserve a closer look!
TimothyCHenderson 2 meses atrás
"...that it would somehow be miraculously unimpeded by the challenges faced by every other country". Indeed. I remember watching videos and reading comments back in the early 00's about China and how a common refrain from Chinese nationals was that they would beat the west at their own game. In many respects they have, but they've also inherited all the same problems that the west faces except on steroids due to the speed of modernization. In that regard, it creates many new problems that are unique to China.
NoMore Constipation
NoMore Constipation 2 meses atrás
I think this is a hallmark achievement of a video. Using China as an example works great for this view. Would like to see an example of how those certain countries avoided the 'trap' I've been trying to explain this to my kids and their friends. I might actually just let them know about this video or try to give them the tl;dr version again ...but by using your example (and the graphics). Perfectly fine teaching tool imo, Bravo 👏
arbj 2 meses atrás
Even England had issues with poverty and over population due to the industrial revolution, the two world wars helped reduce their population
IImStupid 2 meses atrás
A lot of western countries do struggle with this problem for example as mention in the video Japan. But they supplement this issue with immigrantsd who will work for very cheap and add to the population.
Jonathan Pfeffer
Jonathan Pfeffer 2 meses atrás
One way to avoid this trap is through immigration, although that’s also a sort of post-industrialization kinda thing. The US does this A LOT. Immigrants tend to be young working age men or women, and usually ones that are above average and decently educated and capable, so immigration basically drip feeds incredibly valuable workers into a country. This one of the ways how the US has maintained such a dominant position in the world, since many of the worlds smart capable peoples want to move here for higher wages and better quality of life.
Jake Ballard
Jake Ballard 2 meses atrás
He's basically just quoting Peter Zeihan. That's who you need to check out.
Bud Step
Bud Step 2 meses atrás
Amazing video as always! Thank you for sharing! I will definitely subscribe to Nebula before Netflix or other mainstream junk content!
Jack Smith
Jack Smith 2 meses atrás
Turns out it's fake news
Amogh A
Amogh A 2 meses atrás
7:23 "Economically speaking, kids are pretty useless." -PolyMatter, 2023.
Daivd Smith
Daivd Smith 2 meses atrás
Economically speaking kids are worse than useless. They are expensive but worth it
Big Boss
Big Boss 2 meses atrás
What really? epstein and biden loved them 😢
Amru Zaky
Amru Zaky 2 meses atrás
​@Big Boss 😭😭😭
bassyey 2 meses atrás
​@Big Boss Westerns love kids though, all of you.
sivx17 2 meses atrás
Well in the past few months i been seeing more and more stuffs made in Vietnam, Mexico or even some South American countries compared to the usual made in China. I guess its true that China is getting more expensive for manufacturing and kinda lost their price edge.
Shining 2 meses atrás
Yes, because there are no young people working in these factories in China. But the quality of other countries is worse than China. Do you agree?
Yuanrui Chen
Yuanrui Chen 2 meses atrás
stuff made in vietnam kind of sucks
DailyRant 2 meses atrás
@Yuanrui Chen It's a matter of time. Anyone who makes fun of a specific country's bad products clearly doesn't understand that it takes time. Japan had inferior products before too. In US, people had always made fun of American made cars but for some reason can't seem to understand every country's cars went through those stereotypes. It was the Japanese, then it was the Koreans, and now it's the Chinese. Next is probably India.
Yuanrui Chen
Yuanrui Chen 2 meses atrás
@DailyRant Now chinese products are sold in the us two times more expensive than sold in China
DeathDrone69 2 meses atrás
What makes Chinese labour so enticing is not really the labour itself anymore, it is the unique factors china has; like the sheer amount of trained labour (eg more engineers graduate each year than the US has in total), industries made to support that labour (very good vertical and horizontal intigration), and at least until recently a fairly stable country (mexican labour is cheaper if you can keep them from being extorted by the cartels, corruption,etc).
Hayashi Itsujisaruo
Hayashi Itsujisaruo 2 meses atrás
& lack of employee protection laws that does ultimately contributes to the rising cost of wages etc when lives are cheap in China. in China, for every labourer which perishes at work, another 100 are queuing up to take their places despite the lacking of proper laws to protect workers though a communist nation. laws exists primarily for the interest of the party, not the people.
Communist Bot
Communist Bot 2 meses atrás
​@Hayashi ItsujisaruoHow are working conditions in the capitalist USA, or south Korea?
Charles Chen
Charles Chen 2 meses atrás
What makes China unique is that you have a massive cheap labor pool and the 2nd largest economy with strong buying power all in one place.
Chris Paul
Chris Paul 22 dias atrás
That awkward moment when you are watching this on an apple device
Florence Cox
Florence Cox 22 dias atrás
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Chris Paul
Chris Paul 22 dias atrás
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Florence Cox
Florence Cox 22 dias atrás
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Queen OF Love
Queen OF Love 22 dias atrás
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Ben Davis
Ben Davis 22 dias atrás
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Ty 2 meses atrás
These graphics are wonderful. Excellent ways to present data
poiuytrewqqwertyufy 2 meses atrás
“In the city children turn from valuable assets into expensive liabilities”... > Peter Zeihan has entered the chat.
Jack Smith
Jack Smith 2 meses atrás
Source trust me bro
Titanium Rain
Titanium Rain 2 meses atrás
​@Jack Smith you need a source for the sky being blue? Look out the window.
Jack Smith
Jack Smith 2 meses atrás
@Titanium Rain ooooh arent u that gun boi loving guns. So ur sky us smokey isnt it
Mr. Mul
Mr. Mul 2 meses atrás
And imagine thay adults, in Asia culture, mostly take care their parents. So, suddenly you have hamburger generation where you take care the old and young at the same time.
27 dias atrás
Mr. Mul
Mr. Mul 27 dias atrás
@武 Understandable albeit you assume both parents are rich. Btw, I am using google translate, so we might have mis communication.
27 dias atrás
@Mr. Mul 如果你查询中国过去几十年出生人数,而不是宣传中国崩溃的反华宣传,在新型冠状病毒爆发之前,中国每年出生人口在两千万左右,也就是说中国人口总和生育率在过去几十年都在1.8以上,每一个家庭生育1.8个孩子,中国的一个孩子政策除了极个别地区,只在汉族的中国共产党身上强制执行(少数民族有豁免政策),中共官员想要晋升需要响应国家政策,也就是说只能有一个孩子,在少数民族不执行,这些官员在城市都有自己的房子,也就是说都有几十万美元的资产。所以说大部分只有一个孩子的家庭都比较富裕,比较贫穷的家庭和地区大部分都有两个孩子和以上,中国出生人口大幅度下降是在全面放开生育政策之后。你可以查找数据。
Smoothe932 2 meses atrás
Thank you for providing a direct link to this video in Nebula. I hate BRvid, and all that they stand for. BRvid does, at least in some part, shows the videos that I'm interested in. No doubt it is filtered / slanted to BRvid's own agenda. Nebula on the other hand has many of the videos that I want to watch, but is difficult to navigate or get notified of new videos. I wish Nebula could be more friendly. The direct link helped.
Michael Lovatt
Michael Lovatt Mês atrás
I get that the graphs are supposed to be simple, and I appreciate that very much. There is however an issue when you just... lack any labeling on the Y axis...
MMO User
MMO User 2 meses atrás
This is defintely their biggest concern, but that's probably why they have been focusing on automizing many sectors and implementing AI to replace those workers. They are trying to equip each worker with equipment that can output more than what 10 can do by hand. Lets keep watching to see what happens next and not try to predict something that involve many complex factors.
jie yan
jie yan 2 meses atrás
Nickolas Brown
Nickolas Brown 2 meses atrás
"not try to predict something that involve many complex factors." So what, just sit down, never make content? Never speculate about the future? Don't even bother trying to predict the weather, so we can improve models?
onelongwordable 2 meses atrás
​@Nickolas Brown yeah that was a question mark from me too. Not sure what they were trying to say
Chris Micklitz
Chris Micklitz 2 meses atrás
Yeah, let's just watch...
tom nelson
tom nelson Mês atrás
Big problem with Nebula, if you don't know who has content on it, you will never find them, it doesn't give you a menu of content or creators
Loongde chuanren
Loongde chuanren 2 meses atrás
Chinese labor is never cheap and imagines just how much richer while becoming the world's factories with its achievement from Temu, Shein, and BRI's market shares.
Kairon156 [Woulfgang]
Kairon156 [Woulfgang] 2 meses atrás
play lists and knowing which episodes are Nebula exclusive would make it so much more appealing.
Matthew Carey
Matthew Carey 2 meses atrás
I agree, Nebula is a little light on features. I am subscribed to it to support the creators, but it can be hard to use and I wish they would work it out..
Kairon156 [Woulfgang]
Kairon156 [Woulfgang] 2 meses atrás
@Matthew Carey I had to unsubscribe due to wanting to save up Money for a laptop and VR. But I'll be sure to rejoin Nebula next year after I have a new laptop. I do like supporting non BRvid groups.
momotaro 2 meses atrás
A lot of these companies moved to South East Asia as they want to stay close to the China market. And do people still think Chinese factories still need a ton of people on the assembly line? I visited a factory in China that made plastic containers for fruits in supermarkets. They were able to reduce their labours by 2/3 through automation.
Sky Blaze
Sky Blaze 2 meses atrás
Sshhhh..this why most people soon won't have jobs here in the US... cause companys are reducing labour's yet charging more at the same time. This world is broken and a joke.
NF 2 meses atrás
@Sky Blaze funny how we might become the part of the statistics in this video, 😔 man life is hard.
Sky Blaze
Sky Blaze 2 meses atrás
@NF life's a joke
Baha3 Alshamari
Baha3 Alshamari 2 meses atrás
@Sky Blaze It's called technology advancement If your skills are outdated and not needed anymore then learn something else
ZΞTTΛ 2 meses atrás
Japan, Korea, and China all went through the "Cheap Labor" era, and now it's continuing in Africa, India, and ASEAN countries. Ofc, no one is perfect and you shouldn't expect it from any government but I can't say the Chinese government was all wrong when you're watching the fastest growth in human history in front of you. And they did it without colonization, invasions, and wars all over the world.
Godslayer Tantya
Godslayer Tantya 21 dia atrás
Exclude india ,india not following East Asian development model .
tianjiao chai
tianjiao chai 21 dia atrás
not all wrong, just tremendously wrong and exceedingly obstinate😅
xt zhao
xt zhao 19 dias atrás
​@Godslayer TantyaIndia re-define what is industrialization, Turk re-define economy.
DaTou QD
DaTou QD 17 dias atrás
​@Godslayer Tantya China and India have almost the same population and economic situation, even India's GDP initially exceeded China's, why China's GDP is now six times that of India, this is a question worth pondering
PN 2 meses atrás
I love how he makes weird parallels for the American audience like “Chinese Montana”. Or “documentaries Mall”
Albert Lew
Albert Lew 2 meses atrás
Very impressive that this channel from a Western country can share such deep, unbiased and faithful insights into China’s history, status quo and likely future. Love this channel and already a fan!❤
M 2 meses atrás
Reverse is not possible
Herman 2 meses atrás
What do you mean 'from a western country'? Why wouldn't they be able to?
blazer Mês atrás
Most biased content are from Indian channels.
KIM P Mês atrás
lmfao, maybe you should watch less CCTV and CGTN
ystconnection 2 meses atrás
I love that this is Peter Zeihan’s presentation on China, but with better editing and music. Seriously though great video!
Jack Smith
Jack Smith 2 meses atrás
Peter zrihan the fake
narvuntien 2 meses atrás
I think they will follow the Japanese path. Rapid growth into a long stagnation. The good news for China is that they are succeeding in technical fields such as renewable energy and electric cars which will be needed in the energy transition.
W /
W / 9 dias atrás
Less likely. It is not until the China started to in large scale develop their companies business overseas, backed by government, the japan only follow the same roughly at the same time of china. And china has some edge advantages compared with Japan, with all the still low cost manufacturing line. Japan only retains the high tech industry, the others are all long died off.
Phineas 2 meses atrás
Equating education to skills, although common, is still a bad practice. There is no such thing as high skill and low skill labor, just labor that requires calculus and labor that doesn't.
brandon m
brandon m 2 meses atrás
I disagree. Education can be in more than calculus. It's the difference between moving dirt by hand/shovel and moving dirt with a excavator. One can be done by literally anyone without training. The other cannot.
Daivd Smith
Daivd Smith 2 meses atrás
Formal education and having the skills to complete a task are not the same but the term "skill labor" literally refers to someone who works in a field that requires a degree or specialized training usually through a vocational school i.e. pilots, electricians, and nurses are all considered skilled laborers.
HAORAN DENG 2 meses atrás
As a Chinese person. I have to say your video is amazing.
noob168 Mês atrás
Yet he thinks China Airlines is China's...Unless he thinks Taiwan is part of PRC...
@noob168 Taiwan ‘s official name is Republic of China. Red China is People republic of China. Taiwan is part of China but not PRC. The BRvidr probably thinks the China airlines is from PRC. It is actually from ROC.
Benjamin Matheny
Benjamin Matheny Mês atrás
What isn't mentioned in the topic of education in China is it's quality. They focus on rote memorization, which may put them on par in high school but behind in college. Chinese parents prefer to send their kids abroad for College if they can afford to. It's part of why they have such a lack of innovation. I have met several PHD.s from Chinese colleges, they did not come across as well versed even in their own subject matter.
Dante 2 meses atrás
In my view the most significant contributor to low inflation over the last 20 years has been the growth of China and there ability to produce low cost goods. Now that it is over, I think we are about to step into a very different world.
Daivd Smith
Daivd Smith 2 meses atrás
A big contributor to low inflation was/is the increase in GDP. The low cost of consumer goods is what China was for.
DeleteFacebook 2 meses atrás
We need to be careful here with the electronics that we allow them to manufacture, anything that emits light needs to be controlled.
dungeonbrownies 2 meses atrás
It's kinda funny to see this happen because chances are good they'll solve the problem before the rest of the world, if only by sheer force of will
P 2 meses atrás
Sheer force of will can accomplish amazing things. Unify a nation. Prevail and thrive through adversity. Build mighty empires. But once momentum is spent, sheer force of will - along with everything it accomplishes - always fails catastrophically. Internal collapse and external attacks can't be thwarted forever.
Jack Jones
Jack Jones 2 meses atrás
Maybe the economic side of things, but definitely not raising fertility rates simply because no developed country has besides Israel. Which is unique and not applicable to any other country because 1) Israeli's are still scarred by the Holocaust and 2) They and the Palestinians are trying to outbreed each other. There are other minor reasons like Israel being the only country to fully subsidize IVF, but those are the main 2.
onii chan
onii chan 2 meses atrás
no they wont
Ianmundo 2 meses atrás
Years ago I used to buy cheap stuff from Aliexpress, nowadays nothing is especially cheap. The stuff I used to buy wasn’t quality or essential, so not being able to buy this kind of product is no loss to me, The factories that used to churn out cheap items will be out of business in no time, Zero Covid killed the supply chains
Johnny Vivic
Johnny Vivic 2 meses atrás
Most stuff on Ali express is still cheaper than its American-shipped counterpart.. but therein lies the dilemma... how long are you willing to wait? On average, most items I see are between 30-40% cheaper on Ali express for the exact same item found on Amazon or Ebay. But unless it's something I already have lots of, I'm not willing to wait a month for it.
Masaya Shida 🇰🇭
Masaya Shida 🇰🇭 2 meses atrás
learnt so much from your previous videos on nebula. Always a good day when PolyMatter uploads!
David Chang
David Chang 2 meses atrás
I think a lot of people don’t realise, why China? The cost of Chinese labour increase also due to its productivity. There is cheap labour in Africa but companies are not flocking there cos they may lose everything. Companies use China also because of the highly educated population too.
Mislav Horvat
Mislav Horvat 2 meses atrás
Fun fact: In Croatia we have a historical figure that is named Stjepan Radić which is almost literally Steve Jobs
ChickenMcThiccken Mês atrás
did stepjan invent iphone?
Luis Otávio Moreira
Luis Otávio Moreira 2 meses atrás
anybody: how much factual errors can you put into a video made to look like informational? PolyMatter: yes
TurtleBot 2 meses atrás
Another reason their demographic issue is so bad is because of the very low amount of people immigrating. The US also has a less than replacement brithrate but has over 50 million foreign born residents, while china has barely 1 million
SealFredy5 2 meses atrás
Offshoring only really made sense from a "bottom line" and shareholder piont of view. In reality, proper investment, automation, and workforce can successfully produce products in any country. By offshoring labor, many companies actually tend to hurt themselves in the long run.
brandon m
brandon m 2 meses atrás
Do you have any source or example for that kind of claim ? Globalization occurred because it worked. I would be interested to at least hear your reasoning
Lord of the Pies
Lord of the Pies 2 meses atrás
I mean utilizing comparative advantages does work. Sure as countries industrialize and demographics change over the long term offshoring "may" hurt. But the time spans we are talking about are literal decades, we live in a world where the next new product has a shelf life of 2-3 years at most. Getting short term advantages and undercutting competition creates a snowball effect much greater than a weak investment over a long period can provide
Name Nameson
Name Nameson 2 meses atrás
Offshoring became necessary when Unions drove up costs and governments regulated us out of business. Companies simply adapted. China has or enforces no rules, so they went there. Unions were warned this would happen, but they were working with the enemy (Communists).
Rumcajs 9
Rumcajs 9 Mês atrás
I don't think it's a massive problem. It's a problem for CEOs of big brands and their bonuses. We pay pretty much the same for tires made in China or Made in France of the same brand, the difference is that this brand earns less when its made in France.
childofterra 2 meses atrás
the end of this video sounds a lot like the problems we're having in the us too, stigma around vocation, extremely high cost of living and having children
Oda Swifteye
Oda Swifteye 2 meses atrás
I'm so glad you brought up the xenophobia about being "replaced" by the foreigners on the rise. It was exactly that and with the same end result too. I don't think their will be an explosion of Chinese pop art though.
elmohead 2 meses atrás
Chinese art has already exploded. They're in the middle of a massive, and I mean absolutely massive cultural revival.
Joseph King
Joseph King 2 meses atrás
What a good explanation! You're to be commended!
I25M 2 meses atrás
"announced the shift to a consumption driven economy" a microcosm of the issues with command economy in one sentence
Strykenine 2 meses atrás
I support Nebula and have for many years. PolyMatter, Isaac Arthur and Wendover are some of the best creators around and they deserve my support.
KA 2 meses atrás
Interesting. Would this increase inflation in countries that have in the past 10 years been importing their products from China ?
Nathaniel Zarny
Nathaniel Zarny 2 meses atrás
Wait so don't we have a contradiction? Lower demographics make for more job openings at higher wages, yet youth unemployment is 20%? Can't companies give these people internships to learn the skills to do the job? Or at least entry level bloat jobs so they can make some money and work for the company when they do have the skills needed?
Chi Er
Chi Er 2 meses atrás
The large "glut" of working age of people still hasn't retired, they're 50-54 year olds. And also, as said in the video, there's a pretty big skill mismatch between what the prospective worker has and what the economy needs.
李功德 20 dias atrás
The author speaks very evenly and clearly,thanks.
红尘飞 2 meses atrás
I am a Chinese college student studying in Macau (this is why I can log in to youtube). My impression of Made in China is that almost all the things with visible trademarks around me are made in China, and the really high-end European, American, Japanese, Korean Taiwan products The product label cannot be seen, because China is responsible for the assembly and integration solution provider, but China is overcoming this phenomenon and manufacturing real high-end products by itself. About housing prices: Regarding China's housing prices, my understanding is: China is a land-oriented economic development model, buying a house = buying national bonds = the country's future prospects. When the country's prospects are all the way up, the house will become more and more valuable, and the repayment of the loan will become less and less, but this will only make the college students/graduate students who graduate later and work more and more painful. Regarding education: It is worth mentioning that the college entrance examination is extremely unfair. China can be roughly understood as having three types of universities: A CLASS, B CLASS, and C LASS. In 2022, high school students in Beijing have a 46% chance of being admitted to A CLASS universities, while high school students in my hometown of Jiangxi Province have a 41% chance of being admitted to A, B, and C universities in 2022. Beijingers get into better universities just because they are Beijingers and their test papers are easier. Supplement: Part of the content is contrary to the content in the video. More and more students can't accept to engage in physical work after studying in college, so more and more people hope to continue to graduate school, to avoid entering the workplace or hope to get a better job, so China's Postgraduate examinations are also gradually creating new records for the number of students. And the graduates/postgraduates contributed a lot to the unemployment rate after the lockdown. On the one hand, the society scoffs at those who graduated from technical secondary schools/college/vocational high schools, and the wages of those engaged in manual work are not optimistic, and they are very tiring. About childbirth: I asked several female friends around me, including girlfriends, that they all resisted childbirth. The reasons include the great pain it brings, the huge damage to the appearance after childbirth, and the hard work of raising children. and time for yourself.
NS Ng 2 meses atrás
You can use vpn in China to access, YT, FB, Google, etc. When I travelled to China, I have 2 options. The first is to use vpn with a Chinese sim card. The second is to enable roaming since my telco is based in Singapore. I have also used a sim card from a Hong Kong based telco. I just enabled roaming when I am in China.
红尘飞 2 meses atrás
@NS Ng It is very expensive to use a Hong Kong calling card to open roaming costs. I use a Chinese VPN, 2usd can buy 130g of VPN traffic. I used 40g for forty days.
Kendrick 2 meses atrás
我用的 75一年 速度挺好的
红尘飞 2 meses atrás
@Kendrick 你这个更是重量级,不过我一年有八个月时间在澳门,不需要一整年的,12块130g的vpn简直爽歪歪
Will Yang
Will Yang Mês atrás
ET Himself
ET Himself 2 meses atrás
This vid was great at explaining a topic that is complicated. Would be great to see an accurate vid on the current Russian economy. This would be interesting to see the Reality of it all instead of who really knows. 👍
V S 2 meses atrás
Hurts my heart to see this is how we evolved as humans.
seeni gzty
seeni gzty 2 meses atrás
Fun fact: In Croatia we have a historical figure that is named Stjepan Radić which is almost literally Steve Jobs
Kyle 2 meses atrás
Yes the per hour is almost 4x other countries, but china’s actual productivity per hour is still the among if not the best in the game.
Unconventional Ideas
Unconventional Ideas 2 meses atrás
China has the lowest labor productivity is the worst in the world, among those who publish such figures. It might be better when adjusting for price level, but it is still lousy because their factories are so reluctant to change. For example, instead of conveyors, many Chinese factories (especially in rural areas) hire people to drag it across the floor, including an imaginary hypothetical one that I am going to use to illustrate my point. The owner of our hypothetical factory is typical: he (or she) comes up with a series of excuses as to why conveyors will not work for their factory instead of investigating to see if it could work. Thus, the factory never increases its automation and eventually becomes uncompetitive, so it loses all its export business. Then, the business really struggles, and eventually faces bankruptcy.
Real Name
Real Name 2 meses atrás
@Unconventional Ideas I think it's only valuable price adjusted. There are 2 distinct labor productivity categories, one is developing the other is developed. There is a massive gulf between the 2 categories that's astronomical, but the price diff is also astronomical. Until the cost gulf *really* closes, the productivity gulf doesn't need to close.
Fluoroantimonic Tipped Cruise Missile
@Real Name When you look at comparable countries, there is still a gap. In Mexico, the average worker produces about twice as much economic activity per hour worked compared to China.
Real Name
Real Name 2 meses atrás
@Fluoroantimonic Tipped Cruise Missile Is Mexico really a valid comp tho? They industrialized along with the rest of the western world, China didn't open up until 78. Also the worker productivity is a measurement manufacturing productivity. It's total GDP divided by total work hours. A easily skewed data point. Since China has 400 million agricultural workers, I don't think that stat represents the economic viability of it's industrial economy. It's overall productivity is limited by demand, not supply. The workers multinationals are hiring are not hired to do farm work. The transition from unskilled agriculture to unskilled manufacturing immediately multiplies gdp output.
Fluoroantimonic Tipped Cruise Missile
@Real Name If US buisness wants to reshore, nearshore then friendly shore in that order of preference, Mexico is a strong candidate to go to. That makes Mexico a good comparison.
Gregory Ferraro
Gregory Ferraro 2 meses atrás
So many of the world's economic problems right now are related to investors foolishly believing that things just go on forever. Growth, demand, population growth, peace - all of those things were expected to just get better and better without stopping, and entire countries built themselves on those assumptions. I can't see how anyone who would consider themselves an authority in any field could be so foolishly optimistic.
XpertMan 2 meses atrás
Guess people’s greed and lack of education is the problem - but hey, this is what drives the economy indefinitely, why stop the money train? Just make sure you’re the smart train driver ;)
Bill Kong
Bill Kong 2 meses atrás
This is a win. That means Chinese workers have made their labour productive enough to demand a higher wage and raise their standard of living.
Bat Cake
Bat Cake 2 meses atrás
@TulakHord-wi6izrobot 😞
Bat Cake
Bat Cake 2 meses atrás
@TulakHord-wi6iz so robot aren’t going to steal our jobs in the future?
Bat Cake
Bat Cake 2 meses atrás
@TulakHord-wi6iz ohhh thank you for clearing this one up
XpertMan 2 meses atrás
Interesting analysis - I wish there was a prediction made on our future, waiting for sequel 1) how the world will develop due to the great fall of China 2) what it means for global economy as well as average consumers of Europe and America
IRoYzI 2 meses atrás
You have answered HUGE questions I’ve had for forever!!!!
Romanke 2 meses atrás
escaping the middle income trap by going higher, the country will most likely have a smaller birthrate convincing the population to have more children is more a social/societal problem, less economic
Will Yang
Will Yang Mês atrás
Interesting point.
Googie Gress
Googie Gress 2 meses atrás
I'm having trouble identifying when the Lewis Turning Point occurred in the US, because all the search results are about the China topic, or are about other Lewises. Can anyone direct me to a source that has this info? Thanks!
MOBXOJ 2 meses atrás
Economically speaking, kids are very useless - PolyMatter 2023
The Boulder takes issue with that comment
Just useless in general
Daivd Smith
Daivd Smith 2 meses atrás
@The Boulder takes issue with that comment I take it you don't like kids or have any?
The Boulder takes issue with that comment
@Daivd Smith I don't keep things with no use around
DavidJMa Mês atrás
My consulting firm is very busy dealing with large Chinese manufacturers seeking to offshore their factories to the GCC. It's not just labour costs, it's removal of state subsidies, new tarrifs and proximity to market!
Dūm Dūm Brown
Dūm Dūm Brown 27 dias atrás
What’s the GCC, mate?
DavidJMa 27 dias atrás
@Dūm Dūm Brown Gulf Cooperation Council countries: KSA, Oman, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and UAE.
Dakamune Mês atrás
I think people missed the point that for many Asian countries, old people don’t usually retire, they work until they can no longer. So they still have a long buffer to fix the birth deficit
Austin Chen 100
Austin Chen 100 2 meses atrás
“Children also known as free farm labor”😂😂😂
RM 2 meses atrás
China has indeed been successful in developing a strong domestic manufacturing industry and reducing its reliance on imports, unlike the US places like California/NY will need to use cheaper and poorer places, like Bangladesh or Florida/Alabama, for their outsourcing
KevinDST Mês atrás
Chinese labor is 8 USD/hour? LOL no where near that high. My Chinese friend posted a photo of a sign of the company he went working for, it says 15 CNY/hour which is 2.18 USD, and it's pretty common for factory workers. Interesting thing is, I told him to look up the minimum wage of his city and it was 16.1 CNY. 8 USD/hour is either fake or the middle man took a lot from the workers
James Niland.
James Niland. 23 dias atrás
Just a couple of notes. Your current bar graphs still seem to use older official numbers from the Chinese government that have been corrected downwards for the younger age groups. Also the current population of China is nowhere near 1.5 billions, but somewhere close to 1 billion. So there are less people and population will shrink even faster than you show.
Biochem Wang
Biochem Wang 2 meses atrás
Well, to produce anything, what you need is a lot of more than cheap labor.
Spice Master II
Spice Master II 2 meses atrás
This all sounds like what Peter Zeihan has been saying. Including the bit about kids being free farm labor.
M & M
M & M 2 meses atrás
that's because he's shamelessly plagiarizing
Doctor Core
Doctor Core 2 meses atrás
You are quite right, this is the best time and the window of opportunity is closing, we must take this window and destroy the foundations of Western hegemony.
123 456
123 456 2 meses atrás
"Only major Latin American economy more expensive is Chile" My Uruguayan heart hurts.
Unconventional Ideas
Unconventional Ideas 2 meses atrás
Never mind. Uruguay seems to be on a good path for the future. Part of the reason Chinese labor is so expensive is because of the real estate bubble.
Ula Alu
Ula Alu 2 meses atrás
Igual solo serían a lo más 4 países en Latinoamérica : Chile, Uruguay, Panamá y Costa Rica ? .. En conclusión: Uruguay cada vez más cerca a los países europeos que latam : / ( saludos de 🇵🇪)
Sam Potter
Sam Potter 2 meses atrás
Great video. Your graphics are amazing!
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