How the Eastern Roman Army Declined - Armies and Tactics DOCUMENTARY

Kings and Generals
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The Kings and Generals animated historical documentary series on the evolution of the Roman Army continues with the fourth episode of the series on the Army of the Eastern Roman Empire - the Byzantine Empire. In this episode, we'll talk about the late era Byzantine army and will see how it declined during the era of the Seljuk expansion, Fourth Crusade, and the rise of the Ottomans

Armies and Tactics:
Late Roman Army:
Roman Imperial Cavalry:
Roman Army during the Crisis of the Third Century:
Creation of the Medieval Roman Army:
Strategikon - Army Manual of the Byzantine Army:
Elite and Levy Units of the Eastern Roman Army:
Justinian's Restoration:

Support us on Patreon: or Paypal: or by joining the youtube membership: We are grateful to our patrons and sponsors, who made this video possible:

The video was made by Arb Paninken , while the script was developed by Dimitris Koutsoumis. This video was narrated by Officially Devin ( )

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Production Music courtesy of Epidemic Sound:

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28 Set 2021



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Comentários 1 271
Kings and Generals
Kings and Generals 23 dias atrás
Previous Episodes: Creation of the Medieval Roman Army: Strategikon - Army Manual of the Byzantine Army: Elite and Levy Units of the Eastern Roman Army:
zhubacca 18 dias atrás
Nestor Original
Nestor Original 20 dias atrás
@Talichad Well they had something to do with each other, because the Byzantine empire is the Eastern half of the Roman Empire, the West had fallen when the Byzantine empire was created. But one is latin and one is Hellenic. Those two are different but have something to do with each other
Talichad 20 dias atrás
Rome is in Italy uneducated trashes. Byzantine Empire had nothing to do with the Roman Empire.
Nic777 21 dia atrás
@Hydra I was both joking and being serious at the same time lol. But I think the romans were unstoppable as long as there was no corruption in their government and if the military/political leaders were competent and with strong vision.
Nestor Original
Nestor Original 21 dia atrás
The Byzantines were Orthodox Greeks but at Byzantine time wore the name "Roman" because they were invaded by romans
MynameJeb 4 dias atrás
Roman Empire is the true Sick Man of the Europe, Northern Africa and the Levant
88kjk75 4 dias atrás
Could you make a episode on the gradual hellenisation of the Early Byzantine state, or how it transformed from a Latin Roman one into a Greek empire?
OPVSNOVVM 11 dias atrás
15:40 Pontic walnuts (as they were called in Greek, if I'm not mistaken) are hazelnuts. That region still produces most of the entire world's hazelnuts.
tezcan uyanık
tezcan uyanık 13 dias atrás
Come on make ottoman army equipment tactics and logistics series too!! Ottoman Wars is one of your largest series in your channel
matthew mann
matthew mann 15 dias atrás
High stakes
Lucius Domitius Aurelianus
My biggest take away from this video is finally understanding how to pronounce some of these Emperors' names.
Angelscorr angell
Angelscorr angell 16 dias atrás
One more extra piece of info, Flavius Belisarius, the famous companion of Justinian was the last capable, cunning general in Roman Army. Unfortunately, no other brilliant and talented general come out like him in the empire's history the following decades after his death.
Angelscorr angell
Angelscorr angell 16 dias atrás
Emperor Justinian's reign was a turning point for military affairs. After the end of his reign, many of his successors only managed to handle administrative issues. They were not so successful on military matters. (except some civil wars against their own faction) For example, Heraclius was responsible for the loss of Mesopotamia to the islamic expansionist. As for armies, emperors began to hire mercenaries for troops. The Eastern Roman army has become more reliant on mercenaries, and the integrity of the army was shakeable as soon as the mercenaries took more positions in the ranks. Besides many of the generals were also incompetent. All of these incapabilities and flaws had made a substantial impact on to decline of the Empire military.
Captain Salif
Captain Salif 17 dias atrás
12:23 Gunpowder was actually invented by َMongols
margaret 17 dias atrás
How to make a greek person emotional : remind them of the fall of Constantinople in 1453 😢
Muzaffer Cuneyd Tasoglu
Can you do a series on the history and evolution of the Ottoman army?
Catavar 17 dias atrás
Imagine: The Roman Empire arose in the era of the hoplite and came to ruin under cannon fire.
Юрий Кудрик
Юрий Кудрик 17 dias atrás
Awwww shit. You gonna make me replay tsardom total war again )
paulmer87 17 dias atrás
While not as grand as the armies of Justinian or Basil II, I am much more intrigued but all things Byzantium during the Komnenian Restoration. Where some of the same titles like Domesticos and Megas Dux still in use during this period? There seems to be an idea that the military during Alexis I, John II and Manuel I was lacking and this video seems to point to that. However, it could not have been that bad since this era was marked by territorial expansion and the military had something to do with it, whether it was winning battles outright or posing enough of a threat to deter the Crusaders from outright sacking the Roman Imperium at this time. (We all know the story of the 4th Crusade I’m sure…) Also, since the Thematic administration system was no longer in use, how were provinces administered at this time?
JDoctorRay 17 dias atrás
(Medieval II Total War and Stainless Steel flashbacks)
dare2scheme 18 dias atrás
You are welcome to explore Russia's claim as successor of the Eastern Roman Empire, by virtue of the Eastern Romans who married into Russian aristocracy
𝕰𝖘𝖙 𝕴𝖌𝖓𝖔𝖙𝖚𝖒
We don't know whether roman empire will be reborn or not, but it's certain that a ottoman empire or, a much larger caliphate will be back very soon. Many parts of Europe- from north to south and east to west are observing tremendous rise in the number of fundamental muslim population.
SzeklerGeneral 18 dias atrás
what are those hungarian and cuman merceneries called?
Okan Can Arslan
Okan Can Arslan 18 dias atrás
Byzantine pronoia system is suprisingly similar to Ottoman tımar system
Yang Ong
Yang Ong 18 dias atrás
Its the shame the Greeks that never recovered from and never will.
Stefan katsarov
Stefan katsarov 19 dias atrás
Respect to the Cretans, they where famous for their archery skills back in antient times and still are over 2 000 years later and even remained loyal to the end. If the ERE had never fallen and was relatively big in the Napoleonic times i can see the Cretans being a grenadier or rifle regiment of some sort.
Gelis Geo
Gelis Geo 19 dias atrás
Byzantine is modern term . Comes from Byzantium city a Greek colony of Megara city state in Bosporus. Is the place which Became Constantinople city. This people used Roman titles and the name of empire was East Rome. The west Romans who wants the title ofvRome also called this emire as Greek empire .
Henning Hesse
Henning Hesse 19 dias atrás
Super great video as always!! Thank you!
Inkór 19 dias atrás
the best!!!!!
Jonathan Black
Jonathan Black 19 dias atrás
Kayı Boylu
Kayı Boylu 19 dias atrás
Kastamonu shown on the map is my city. And historically it is the center of the Western Black Sea. Thank you for making videos about Anatolian history.
Tuguldur_CFC E
Tuguldur_CFC E 19 dias atrás
Imagine If only they survived Ottomans…
George Bethanis
George Bethanis 20 dias atrás
By far the most interesting nation in the medieval ages. They fought barbarians, steppe nomads, catholic nations, arabs, crusaders, vikings. They fucking did it all and were in the forefront of history. They shaped Slavic civilization, and had a legendary capital, a jewel to behold. Everything about the Byzantines is just EPIC.
George Bethanis
George Bethanis 13 dias atrás
@tezcan uyanık Everyone had these kinds of problems.
tezcan uyanık
tezcan uyanık 13 dias atrás
except there internal political problems
Vir 20 dias atrás
Ad skip 2:07
036Gaurav Lodhi
036Gaurav Lodhi 20 dias atrás
Man i am waiting for bulgarian ottoman wars please next make one on that😁😁
Zahid Hussain
Zahid Hussain 20 dias atrás
Can you do research and plzz upload battle of kosedog its interesting ithink
Ryan jean-baptiste The champion of zeus
long live the greatest empire even lived the byzantium empire
Jah Bless
Jah Bless 20 dias atrás
Video starts at 2:12
sirmax2stacks2000 20 dias atrás
tactics? Ha, just pay your enemies not to fight you!
Aoki Aoki
Aoki Aoki 20 dias atrás
Wars cost money as well
oliver green
oliver green 20 dias atrás
If you were to go up to a Cajun shoe salesman or even fisherman in modern day louisiana today and say I was sent by allagators forward in time to save your empire, they would tie you up and say " we got an alligator here, take us to your leader"
Maks 20 dias atrás
12:40 you showed Hagia Sophia with minaretts
Elder Moose
Elder Moose 20 dias atrás
I really like the army and organizational series you've been doing it really cool and helps i guess make sense of the relative capabilities of groups during their respective periods.
Gefitrop349 20 dias atrás
I really love all that history east and south of the mediterranian, unfortunately our schools basically only ever do that when talking about ancient egypt for 10 lessons
Sveles 20 dias atrás
At thine Russians/ukrnaims are known as schytians I’m fact in Greece they are still called that wAy,…..apoleon….hyperborea…
MC_Pablo 20 dias atrás
in 1000 years from now they`re gonna make videos like this on how the U.S.A was conquered and slaved by the Taliban
Sk0lzky 20 dias atrás
Rarely mentioned topic, love it!
AA Q 20 dias atrás
Muslims and bulgars? Just saying but wouldn't it be more accurate to say the Turks , Arabs and the Bulgars? Pretty sure not every single Muslim nation was fighting the bysantines so its sounds like a weird generalisation.
camera31 21 dia atrás
so what do you do for a living? i'm an alligator
M G B 21 dia atrás
Nothing new under the sun. 🤓 Just modified and technofied. History repeats itself and in 12K years we are still fighting for peace and humanity. Well, I am just going to say, prepared for another world shift and exodus which in part will be major land grabs for survival. Even back in those days humans we're studying the environment and nature. These things too became important factors in winning and losing wars. If you don't know by now you will learn here in the cloud. Knowledge will transform your life and understanding should bring you to positive outcomes that is wisdom. Let those who have eyes see and hear my voice within them. It would take a minds eye and a hearts eye for that. When two cats fight, a third one wins. Blessed are the peace keepers. ☝️😇💨💖🕊️🖖🌎🌏🌍
cultusdeus 21 dia atrás
Interesting but really sad.
A J 21 dia atrás
Byzantine / ERE is so underrated
J, Williams
J, Williams 21 dia atrás
Could you imagine not being able to move because your landlord says you cant?
Urobolos 21 dia atrás
I love this channel, but as an actuall scholar in history i cant really be confortable with it's recent habit of calling the “Byzantine Empire” as "Easter Roman Empire", or even "Roman Empire There is a reason why in accademics proper roman history and byzantine historiy belong to complete differently accademics branches: even if the latter had a “succession” continuity with the former, it grew so different it was as different from classical Rome as were pretty much all the other medieval societies By calling them “romans” you are not only dismissing what made the proper classical age Rome an unique civilization, but also deny the Byzantine society the right to be considered an indipendent society with an indipendent history of it's own, and force it to be considered the “not so glorious” sequel of Rome. Not to mention is borderline cultural appropriation from the greek people history, that always consider byzantium as more greek than roman I know byzantine fanboys in video games always rejected the term “byzantine” as a label and prefered “romans”. But “byzantine” is still an universally accepted accademic term, and should be used more often
Arris Bunuan
Arris Bunuan 19 dias atrás
They called themselves Romans never Byzantines so therefore this is Roman Empire in the Middle Ages who spoke Greek but their Emperors always consider themselves as successors of Augustus & Constantine.
Urobolos 19 dias atrás
@LusaIceheart Greeks never called themselves as such, they always called them "Hellenes". Why then we dont start use the term "Hellas" in classical historiograhpy, instead of "Greece"? Despite being indeed born as a wester label, “Byzantine” is a good term to give the greek-speaking empire his own indipendent identity and history, and not to be considered instead the long, decadent prologue of the much more illustrious ancient roman history. Fanboys of the “Eastern Roman Empire” name cant realize they are doing more harm than good to the civilization's legacy
LusaIceheart 20 dias atrás
The application of the word "byzantine" to the Eastern Roman Empire is a hold over from outdated academic traditions and in particular, one German author from the 1600s. Such poor quality second hand sources are not considered trustworthy due simply to the distances in time and location, but also the very real political biases of the time. A monk in Augsburg would have very real reasons at the time to dismiss the legitimacy of the Eastern Roman Empire as the proper continuation to the Roman Empire. The feud for legitimacy between Constantinople and the Holy Roman Empire didn't go away in 1453, it just left the door open for uncontested revisionist writers. To take a 17th century German author at face value for information on the Eastern Roman Empire is much like taking a 14th Century Ming author at face value on an biography of Kublai Khan. Effectivity a useless source, especially when first hand sources are in abundance and readily available. Sources from the actual Eastern Roman Empire refer to themselves as Roman and the Turks refer to the Eastern Roman Empire as Rum (Rome). Western European scholars wrongly applied the moniker 'Byzantine' to a culture and people who never once used that term outside of poetic names for the city of Constantinople (poetry emphasizing it's founding in Antiquity and it's roman heritage). It's not cultural appropriation to call it the Eastern Roman Empire, it's appropriation and bad scholastics to call it Byzantium. Complete disregard to all the culture and history of the people who lived then, who considered themselves as citizens of the Roman Empire. It's a shame we're going to be stuck with a pre-Enlightenment Science, politically weighted term for so much of the Roman Empires history. A thousand years of continuity and evolution being stuck with a name picked by it's rivals as a smear.
Michael O'Rourke
Michael O'Rourke 21 dia atrás
It’s arguable how best to anglicise the pronunciation of Greek and French. But I don’t like this fellow’s choice. Example: pronoiar. He says pronny-ar. I would go pro-NOY-ar... Also bizarre is his KOn-stanty-NOPPLe!
Corvus Glaive
Corvus Glaive 21 dia atrás
Byzantium - Too many chiefs, not enough Indians. These guys put the I in idiot. It's a miracle the empire lasted as long as it did with the amount of treachery, backstabbing and downright stupidity those guys indulged in.
阿德莫尔堡主 21 dia atrás
Well at least not like the western army that crumbled like a melting butter
James 21 dia atrás
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kamel kai's 20 dias atrás
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rashid Josh
rashid Josh 21 dia atrás
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Jesse Best
Jesse Best 21 dia atrás
Great videos, I've been watching them in order and I would have learned so much more in High School if I had watched these videos. I wish there was a way to actually sort all the videos by chronological order.
Aden Melton
Aden Melton 21 dia atrás
Could y’all please do a video on the ancient armies of the Maurya Empire and maybe later the Gupta empire
Ivanna Nukya
Ivanna Nukya 21 dia atrás
No such thing as byzantine empire , that is lazy history and is misleading. It’s the empire of the Romans or eastern Roman Empire. One of the biggest shames is when historians told people to refer to the late Roman Empire as byzantine . Romans would have been disgusted by such a label, they worked and bled for there Roman Empire , even if it wasn’t like the classic Roman Empire modern people think of.
knessi ng
knessi ng 21 dia atrás
In the later years did the Byzantium Army and Navy lost the formula to Greek Fire?
Eric 21 dia atrás
At @14:00 the Ottomans are represented by a crescent moon this is not correct for the time, the crescent moon was symbol of the city of Byzantium, then Constantinople, then the Ottomans after they conquered it, and finally all of Islam.
Tartarian empire
Tartarian empire 21 dia atrás
I believe in came from turkic symbol and mythology
ACast311 21 dia atrás
As a byzaboo I love every time Kings and Generals puts out a Byzantine video
Palmeiras Supremo
Palmeiras Supremo 21 dia atrás
Oh yes, you're a virgin.
Sarmatian Cougar
Sarmatian Cougar 21 dia atrás
I can't understand why they failed. I mean Alexander the Great only had Greece and Macedon and he recruited more than 50,000 Greek men, real warriors, unbreakable, tough as nails. And he steamrolled the whole Achaemenid Empire. Byzantine Emperors had a lot more population and a lot more gold at their disposal and all they could get was levies and foreign mercenaries. What happened to the Greek fighting prowess?
Peza 21 dia atrás
Can you do a video on the walls and sieges of Constantinople?
Eric Ponce
Eric Ponce 21 dia atrás
Question: When it came to training soldiers, did the Eastern Roman Empire use the same training methods that were used in during the Roman Empire's apogee?
dare2scheme 17 dias atrás
No because of the development of calvary and artillery, adapting landscape of battle and the the diverse fighting styles of mercenaries used. Classical Roman military was centered around an infantry on foot with large shields.
AmNotHere911 21 dia atrás
Here's a project/subject for you Kings and Generals: How and why did the predominantly mobile horse-archer army of the Anatolia Turks (e.g. under Seljuks) evolved towards the more professionalised 'gun-powder' army of the Ottoman era pre-Mehmet fatih and that peaked under Suleyman Kanuni? Historians states Mehmet Fatih's father was the one who instituted this 'professionalisation' reform of the Turkic army after the disastrous invasion of Anatolia, and catastrophic defeat, by Timurlane. And whether like Alexander the great, Mehmet Fatih inherited an exceptional army from his father which he used to smash away the last remnant of the Byzantine state.
mlovecraftr 21 dia atrás
"SKOPETA" looks a lot like "escopeta", the Spanish word for shotgun
Arshan 21 dia atrás
I feel like the Romans had more than enough ages to realize the danger of Steppe Horde people, but in every instance Rome in its incarnations fought Steppe People (Scythians, Sarmatians, Alans, Huns, Bulgars, Avars, Ogurs, Oghuz, and many more), they had a chance to learn from their mistakes of underestimation. You would think so anyways
Hashtagrex 21 dia atrás
Dont cry because its over, smile because it happened
Muhanuzi Mpesha MD
Muhanuzi Mpesha MD 21 dia atrás
Love history I hope this will be truly objective
jimmythespy 21 dia atrás
Interesting video!!!
MIKAEL FLYER 21 dia atrás
How about doing the war in Ulster, Hugh O’Neill vrs Essex/ Mount Joy. 1597-1607
Casey 21 dia atrás
they declined because God destroyed them
Altan Nedjati
Altan Nedjati 21 dia atrás
KIngs and Generals, Please! Great video! I always watch every one of your videos, NEVER to miss one from like button. But pleaseeee, give us the name of the soundtrack of the opening of the video. Thanks :D
dillon burnes
dillon burnes 21 dia atrás
Great! Now I’m gonna be depressed after watching this!
George Kasapoglou
George Kasapoglou 21 dia atrás
Do you have a link of the book "instructions"?
Riker Davis
Riker Davis 21 dia atrás
Ian from Timcast IRL gave you guys a shout out yesterday
delian77 21 dia atrás
So... how did it decline? the video just tells us about army composition
Loupis Canis
Loupis Canis 21 dia atrás
Thank you , K&G .
marius9441 21 dia atrás
What is the name of the song at 11:32 and continuing with the description of the Cretan crossbowmen?
Muhammed Yılmaz
Muhammed Yılmaz 21 dia atrás
13:43. In Ottoman cadastral records, Orban didn't die during siege and had large amount of estates (probably thanks to his service) in Constantinople.
Bagatur 21 dia atrás
Can you do an episode on the history and origin of the Bulgars,this will be very interesting.
Ivo Kantarski
Ivo Kantarski 21 dia atrás
The Romans seemed to not adapt enough against the Muslims and the first Bulgarian empire. There are way too many battles and wars which show that. This lead to long periods of great loss in territory and soldiers being killed.
Sagar Gholap
Sagar Gholap 21 dia atrás
Want to attract more of an Indian audience than please do a video on Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj and the Maratha Kingdom. We Indians are indebted to him. Followed by the Rajputs and Sikh kingdom.
David Victor
David Victor 21 dia atrás
Hi, Guys! Would you like to create a video about a rise of Shaka Zulu or Anglo-Zulu War?
Rocky Adams
Rocky Adams 21 dia atrás
Why do ppl dislike history what a bunch of idiots
Victor Hodges
Victor Hodges 21 dia atrás
Venetians sending arms and armament after basically dooming the place in the 4th crusade is peak.
Corto Brown
Corto Brown 21 dia atrás
At least they try to mantain their legacy. The story of both the Roman and Byzantine Empires is a tragic one. They were not perfect but they did oustanding things. The Colosseum, Hagia Sophia are few examples of their existence. They will never fall until the day we forgot them.
panagiotis douvris
panagiotis douvris 21 dia atrás
Orban the Hungarian engineer was one of the main reasons of the fall of Constantinopole. The rich people of the City didnt give the money to the emperor so Orban went to the Turks.
Renáta Béres
Renáta Béres 12 dias atrás
Ironically he worked against his nation too. Because the Ottomans also destroyed Hungary.
panagiotis douvris
panagiotis douvris 22 dias atrás
For all those who believes that the "byzantine"empire was not a Greek empire (at least most of it) they just need to see all the names in the video from emperors to names for army groups Sorry for my english.
TheSoundInYourHead 13 dias atrás
@Πυθαγόρειον Θεώρημα you are simply Id!ot and brainwashed from the leftist propaganda that stay on the religion part of the empire neglecting the technological, educational and cultural advantage from all the other barbaric empires back then.
dare2scheme 17 dias atrás
The Eastern Romans used Greek language, but they were Latins. The original Romans were Greek war refugees who were adopted by the Latins in Italy. From that point, they can only be classified as Latins. However, in the east, the core inhabitants were Greek, who had a strong sentiment about their own Greek identity and Greek was far more more established in the regions which the Eastern Romans operated, such as Egypt, Anatolia, Persia, etc... Latin simply wasn't as established at home or abroad for the Eastern Romans. The "Byzantines" called themselves Romans by their own records, not Greeks and not "Byzantines". Obviously, the lines of succession are recorded reflecting as much. This isn't to say that the Eastern Romans didn't intermix and marry with Greeks and that Greeks did not occupy the Eastern Roman government.
Πυθαγόρειον Θεώρημα
It was not a Greek empire. It literally altered Greek society in far-reaching negative ways for the worse. The light of Hellenism was snuffed out first by the Romans, then by the Ottomans. Eastern Roman Empire was a Roman production, never Hellenic.
Sofiane E.
Sofiane E. 22 dias atrás
Am I the only one to think that firearms completely destroyed the epicness of warfare ?
jesson alpar
jesson alpar 22 dias atrás
If only the Eastern Empire have senators just like the West,there's a chance they would still be here but as a republic
JERRIN THOMAS 22 dias atrás
At 13.15 the narrator reminds of a foundry making canons in the Byzantine empire, a Hungarian named Orban. Guess who is the Prime Minister of Hungary in 2021,more than six hundred years after the empire's destruction, VIKTOR ORBAN.
Renáta Béres
Renáta Béres 12 dias atrás
I don't think the prime minister would be a descendant of him, though Orbán isn't a very common surname
Σταύρος Κούλικας
well, kingsandgenerals started calling the Romans with the pejorative term "byzantine" again? Shame.
قتادة الرمضان
Primal Gamer
Primal Gamer 22 dias atrás
The old world fell with the fall of Rome, even with the people of the eastern roman empire seeying themselves as romana. The culture, the language, the buildings, the names are nothing like the western roman empire…
Primal Gamer
Primal Gamer 15 dias atrás
@Nikos Papadopoulos There were many civil wars between East and west one of them was with Constantine. Rome had 1 or more milion people in II AD, the decline of Rome happened in the III century yes, they changed the capital to Mediolanium and then Ravenna. The cities in general lost their population over time because it was to instable and dangerous to live there, constant barbarian attacks, civil wars, taxes, crimes. The feudal mechanism started in the late roman empire not in Medieval times, people fled the cities and went to the fields, many cities fell in ruins not because they were attacked but because people just left them, there are many cases like that, one oft he cases was Lepcis Magna one of the most beutiful cities in the empire, was sacked once and then people begin to leave the city in the coming years, that's just an example. The East and west were political rivals and many times had to marriage daughters and sons to estabilize the empires and maitain peace between them. There is very little times that the East or west helped each other, very little. Th East let Rome fell in 410, it done nothing only a 3 day in respect... They didn't care about the west they only cared about their part of the empire.
Nikos Papadopoulos
Nikos Papadopoulos 15 dias atrás
@Primal Gamer WRE was for only 80 years or so as separate entity. Paid Huns not to attack did not mean payed to attack west on purpose. Each part tried survival as best it could facing its own challenges. Civil wars existed but not between east and west. The sieges of Rome (you mean the sacks probably), well the east could not do much to help at this point. When it could it did. The east (unlike west) bordered the only developed large superpower (Sassanids) and had to tie a large amount of force there in all times. And yes when one of the two Emperors died the other (in west or east) acted as Emperor for full part until a replacement came to throne. Anyway these are all details. To speak of a proper full Empire, a mature one covering a whole civilization, as Rome in full size was, your focus should be its great megalopolises, that is the large metropolitan urban centers. With the exception of city of Rome itself which was the one big one most to the west all others where east as they where standing from Hellenistic times and Rome as city fell off quickly in decline by beginning 3rd c. AD and ofc after sacks and shrank (equivalently what happened in Constantinople post 1204 sack). The big ones (over 200k population) after Rome earlier remained Antioch, Alexandria, Pergamon, later Constantinople and also Seleucia but that was already under Parthian/Sassanid control (only a few years under Trajan) and had Ctesiphon established next to it as Persian capital, anyway all those where east, which was much urbanized, for a reason. The west part would see some such development only in the under Arab control Andalusia (the Arabs conquered and continued the middle eastern large metropolitan centres, and founded also the big Baghdad there) and western Europe would witness true such activity only in past 500 years till now but that is a new chapter taking place. You cannot "finish off" an Empire at its peak (Marcus Aurelius) nor any other state when it lives on, unless there was a sudden total conquest of it (say Achaemenid Persia and Alexander) and that did not happen with Rome. The golden age is a peak not the end. And take the word of its citizens east and west for it who felt like that and nothing else.
Primal Gamer
Primal Gamer 15 dias atrás
@Nikos Papadopoulos My parents are hsitory professors, i red alot of books, i ma huge fan of roman history. I disagree with you, it is not based on movies but on historical facts. There were 2 empires with diferent cultures. The west was latin the east was greek period no contest on that. What you are talking about Adrianople is just one battle in centuries. Of course both empires colaborate some times, but generaly they didn't. The east paid the Huns to basicly dont attack the East and "attack the west" no help come from the East vs the Huns, Aecio had to ask the Goths for help. The siege of Rome twice, the East did 0 to help. You said Justinian conquered Africa and Italy with Belissario, true, but only after the fall of Rome.... The East had a lot more money than the west, if the empire wasn't divided it woulnd't have fallen as it did. The west was very poor, only Africa gave food and money to the the western empire. The romans never shared anything, they wanted power and the civil wars brought the end to the empire, the roman biggest enemy was himself, the East did very litle to help the west, if your logic about the empire being just one than you are saying that the co-emperor of the East just let his land fell just because.... He didn't care about the west, it was another rival that could put somone else in his throne. With the end of the western empire the East could just get the lands back and anex to their empire without sharing. That is what happened, and Belissario would have conquered the entire empire back if not for the plague of Justinian, that plague ended the campaign in the west. Why did the East waited so long to help the west against the barbarians?! Because it was convinient and easier to in public opinion to start a war vs barbarians then romans. There was never just one empire, and many times in the past it wasn't just one empire, you had the III century crisis with division in 4 parts or more with a kindom in the midle east too, the roman empire lost is power started dividing after the II century. To me the classical roman Empire fell after Marcus Aurelius, after the 5 good emperors, the golden age of Rome.
Nikos Papadopoulos
Nikos Papadopoulos 15 dias atrás
@Primal Gamer They (two parts) WHERE NEVER AT WAR. Please, stop learning history from movies. Do some study. Books serious ones better. Internet could also help. The two parts faced different (sometimes common) challenges and invaders and where absorbed how to deal with them best without always having time for the other. When they could they helped each other (go check battle of Adrianople when Eastern Emperor Valens lost the fight with goths outside Constantinople, because he did not wait for the help from west to come). But what was then Justinian's reconquest if not the answer from the East (there were also previous failures, eg in North Africa) to free West when it managed to stand on its feet (sadly the plague doomed the whole plan and left Italy an empty cell after a long war. Or else many things you tell me today and misconceptions you hold would be quite different cause Justinian would easily and at low cost compared to what happened even liberate Gaul again and whole evolution would be different even if fall happened later). But, are you referring to the 80 years or around that time the WRE existed when you always talk about it? Because there is nothing else to compare. Or you simply step forward in time to take later Eastern Roman realities as evolved and sadly so without also Latin speaking West or Balkans or Carthage from a point on but only due to ENEMIES of the Empire storming and settling these areas (Germanics, Germanics first but then Slavs and Arabs respectively for the three)? This is a logical fallacy. You cannot be fair when doing that to a 1000 natural sequel. Any state, let alone talking about an Empire uniting a whole cultural orbit will evolve through so long time. But again you miss something important:1) Languages differed since creation of the Empire (since Republic still) but it was a reality of the united Empire since beginning (legionnaires were allowed to take oath to Emperor in Latin or Greek long before 212AD but not other language of the many existing in the Empire). Nothing new. 2) Hence names too, cause Romans of 2nd-1st c. BC were coming only from Roman Latium (earlier in Republic evolution there was an interesting distinction of earlier smaller Rome and conquered Latium or further Italy in terms of citizenship too until it stopped existing) and its colonies, but few centuries later (even before 212 AD typical point) everyone living in the Empire was a Roman not just de jure but in their conscience. 3) Greco-Roman culture was too one and united since Hellenistic times. 4) And regarding buildings, you have missed the natural evolution (through times of the united Empire) till the late Roman architecture, that trust me was preserved much more in the Churches and other buildings of ERE long after (post the fall of Western part, for centuries for example later as previous knowledge was debased in the newly born non Roman medieval west, a lack of comparable engineering mastery, that would take some time to reestablish itself, would make building a single arch a difficult task let alone a full dome or aqueduct, I am talking some time after the first immediate period of fall of West. Compare for example the Haghia Sophia that was built in only five years in 530s AD, how long it took to be surpassed in dome and overall size and by what church in later West and how long it took to build all these in comparison (and do not forget the influence in Spain by Arabs who mastered domed structures first from Romans of east). But by then a new style (Gothic) totally foreign to domed and arches of previous Roman times had emerged in West as something new (starting from the rectangular Roman basilica, build on bricks that started from the previous Greek standard later mentioned again temple as base, but taking down a totally different and interesting but non original Roman road). I am leaving that for your research. But please know: Roman temple architecture had taken its road evolving away from earlier Roman (yes that one fully earlier ancient Greek marble, roundabout, columnaded on the outside, non domed or arched well known rectangular structure say like the Acropolis of Athens or Zeus temple in Olympia of classical Greece or temple of Zeus/Jupiter in Rome etc) much earlier in the Empire and that was common ground both in WRE and ERE of their 80 year time (do not let Hollywood movies give you erroneous but anachronistic impressions, although remains of buildings built with bricks like Haghia Sophia, ie the baths, Flavian Amphitheater etc in Rome are clear where all was and where was going in the early or mid Empire). I also invite you to get a better feel for what I am talking about by googling and comparing the underpinning common style, roots and background of late Roman style and its evolution, of these say buildings: 1) Haghia Sophia (530s AD) in New Rome, 2) Pantheon (not exactly late Roman, even earlier but showing the way, in this form of the huge dome since Hadrian in first half 2nd c AD) in old Rome, 3) Galerius Rotunda (the smaller Pantheon as is known of early 3rd c. AD, again united Empire) in Thessaloniki, 4) the non-domed Mausoleum of Galla Placidia in Ravenna (5th c. AD. during Western Empire), the 5) Basilica of St. Vitalle in Ravenna (540s under Justinian), or the 6) non-Roman, actually Venician (the last child of Eastern Roman control in north Italy was the Venicial Republic which went its own road and killed its mother later in 1204), but fully based as rough replica on the imperial mausoleum (that exists sadly no more since Mehmet the Turk Sultan demolished it to build his Mosque) temple of the Holy Apostles (rebuilt under Justinian in final form) then in Constantinople, I am talking about St. Mark’s Basilica in Venice (9th c AD), and finally 7) compare a very typical even later church the Pantokrator Monastery (today Zeyrek Mosque) in Constantinople (early 12th c. ERE). If you do not see the common underlying thread uniting all these buildings (involving in West everything in WRE till 480s and what even Goths somewhat copied for some time later and during return to Roman control from Constantinople by Justinian and his successors) as a natural continuation and unity of late Roman and following East Roman architecture as opposed to what was happening in medieval West at the time what can I say? Anyway, thanks for your argumentation.
Primal Gamer
Primal Gamer 15 dias atrás
@Nikos Papadopoulos I am sorry but i don't agree with you, the Roman empire was divided and governed by 2 diferent emperors that were "equal" Augustus, but they were very diferent and often times they fought each other and plot against each other, Germanic tribes invaded the west without declaring war on the East. To the emperor of the East it was better if they attacked the west than the East, that doesn't show 1 unique empire but 2 diferent empires, that only sent a message of equal and united to the people nothing more. I never saw any reference of Julius Cesar speaking or writing in greek, all books i have red and seen are writen in latin and originaly in latin too, Cesar was a man of the people and wanted the people to learn about his war in Gaul, there is 0 chance he wrote that in greek, the people of Rome spoke latin, the comon people hated everyone non-roman that inclued the greeks. Even the greeks hated the romans. So as i said the upper class spoke greek more like a mythic language, something fancy like having an Iphone vs xiaomi. Many things were writen in greek yes because most philosophers were greek.But latin was the main language in the empire at least in the west.
Altun AZE
Altun AZE 22 dias atrás
Byzantine army? Ask Fatih Sultan Mehmet!
jothegreek 22 dias atrás
Tzakones were recruited from an area east of sparta . They still speak a dialect very distinct from modern greek t hey are a modern language miracle they are belong to the modern periphery of Arcadia but they are not arcadian by history some call them descentants of the Spartans that are actually Laconians as their dialect is doric compared to Ionic modern greek
Joseph Anaya
Joseph Anaya 22 dias atrás
RoboTube 22 dias atrás
Like every other army = Mercenaries. When you have a state filled with people who arent ready to die to defend it- then that state will die. A state is as powerful as the people living in it. The people are the state. if people become selfish and dont care for the public good in the country- there is no country. USA are so lucky that they have 2 oceans to keep them separated from other strong enemies but with introducing mercenaries - I dont think they will win any wars with an opponent that is not considerably weaker than them.
Daniele Calò
Daniele Calò 22 dias atrás
Mourtatoi might come from the Arab word Murtad wich means Apostate?
Mike Zagros
Mike Zagros 22 dias atrás
Excellent video once again by Kings and Generals. Amazed that you included the detail about the Cretan archers!
Am 22 dias atrás
Bro when u releasing the muslim expansion episode? I need to see the rest of it🔥
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